Fear is a normal response for any animal to a fear-inducing stimulus or situation. Without a reasonable amount of fear neither cats nor humans would fare very well. As unpleasant as fear may be to experience, it keeps our animals and us safe by encouraging caution and by preparing us for fight or flight when danger threatens. Problems arise, however, if fears become so excessive and irrational that they disrupt normal functioning. At this stage, fear has crossed a definitional divide and is now better classed as phobia.
Excessive, irrational fears (or phobias) have three possible triggers:
Other living creatures (especially cats, dogs, and humans)
Inanimate cues (most often noise)
Certain situations, such as being left alone or visiting the vet's office
Nature and nurture interact to produce excessive fearfulness. The natural component is the innate hard-wiring that acquires and processes fears. Specifically, it involves neural pathways in the brain to a structure called the amygdala, where fearful stimuli are processed and then relayed to emotion centers in the limbic system. The natural tendency to acquire fears can be exaggerated in individual cats, families of cats, or whole breeds of cats.
While nature provides the substrate necessary for fear, learning is key. Without learning, fears do not arise in the first place.
Fears can be acquired suddenly and cataclysmically when an extremely traumatic event polarizes a negative learning experience. This can be thought of as a variation on the post-traumatic shock theme. From the time of the negative experience onwards, the fear-inducing stimulus will be avoided or repulsed at all costs. Permanent learning of this type is facilitated by the release of a fight or flight neurotransmitter, called norephrenephrine.
Another way in which fears develop is more slowly over time. In such instances, fears are compounded by repeated exposure to the instigating cause. Over time, the fear gets worse.
Once acquired, fear learning will fade if not reinforced - but it never completely disappears and can be rekindled quickly when circumstances dictate. Fortunately, it is often possible to reduce fearful perceptions and fearful responding by superimposing new learning that masks an older negative association.
Learning What to Fear
The "sensitive period" of learning (about many lifelong perceptions) occurs between two and seven weeks of age in cats. During the early part of this period, fearless kittens bravely go where older cats fear to tread. But, as the sensitive period rolls on, a certain caution or tentativeness emerges in our young heroes. This is a necessary development if kittens are to stay out of harms way. The more driven a kitten becomes to explore his environment, the more essential a dose of apprehension and caution are to his continued safety.
It is adaptive for a growing kitten to associate fear with people who are yelling or gesturing wildly. It is good for the youngster to become frightened by the loud noise and commotion of a busy highway. And it is good for the kitten to learn to avoid experiences that cause him to feel pain or discomfort. It is not so good when these fears become exaggerated, generalized, or misdirected, so that, for example, all strangers generate a powerful fear response from the cat or all visits to the vet's office wind up nightmarish.
Avoidance of Excessive Fearfulness
Many fearful cats have fears that could have been avoided. The most critical time to guard against negative events is during the early part of a kitten's life, notably the latter part of the sensitive period. Throughout this stage, it is imperative for kittens to be raised in a warm, friendly environment and to be introduced to a variety of people and other animals without having any bad experiences, such as prolonged social deprivation or punishment. Conscientiously shielding a young kitten from adversity will ensure a confident well-adjusted adult.
A kitten raised without human contact or who has had bad interactions with people during the first seven weeks of his life will never be entirely comfortable around people and will most likely be afraid around strangers. Adverse experiences may also cause profound and long-lasting fears later in life, but the ante goes up. That is, it takes more of a challenge to produce the same long-lasting fearful result. The susceptibility of older cats to acquiring fear varies with their behavioral experience. A properly raised, fully socialized cat will be much less likely to interpret occasional unfortunate experiences as the "rule" and more likely to interpret such events as exceptions.
Common Expressions of Fear
- Fear of Animate Cues. Cats that are frightened of people and other cats have usually been undersocialized or have had bad experiences with people or other cats. Aggression, running away, and hiding are common signs of fear of living cues. Enlarged pupils, body hair raised, large bushy tail, and inappropriate elimination (urine or feces) are also seen.
- Inanimate Fears. Fear of noises - demonstrated by hiding, signs of high arousal, and hunkered, cowering postures.
- Fear of Situations. These can be divided into fear of cat carrier, car travel, and visiting the veterinarian's office, and fear of separation. Fear of the carrier, travel and vet office often go "hand in glove" and represent a learning process known as back-chaining. The latter is a process by which learning experiences become linked together so that one heralds the next, and so on. When the cat experiences pain at the vet's office, he associates the location and veterinary personnel with unpleasant consequences. The cat then associates car travel with a visit to the vet's office. Next, he realizes that being put in the crate means a possible trip in the car - which might possibly culminate at the vet's office - which might conceivably result in pain.
- Separation anxiety. This occurs when a cat that is closely bonded to his human companion (or sometimes feline companion) becomes distraught when separated from them. Signs include: crying out when left alone, house soiling, and lack of appetite. Some cats may even pull out clumps of their own hair and most greet their owner's over-exuberantly on their return home.